Distracted Walking: A Global Epidemic

By Courtney Murtagh, Tracy Zafian, and Matt Mann, UMTC Research Staff

Most of us are aware of the dangers of distracted driving, but distracted walking? Around the world and close to home, it’s a growing epidemic. More and more people are texting and using their phones while walking in intersections, creating unsafe situations.

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source: Premier Insurance Corporation

A 2017 report by the Governors Highway Safety Association found that pedestrian roadway deaths in the US are now at their highest level in over 20 years, with more than 6,000 pedestrian fatalities in 2016. An article in the May 2017 MassDOT Innovative Outlook, discussed a number of contributing factors for this, including: more driving; alcohol use by drivers and pedestrians; lack of pedestrian visibility; and driver and pedestrian distractions.

Dr. Cole Fitzpatrick, a UMTC Affiliate Researcher, recently conducted a field study on the prevalence of distracted walking and its effect on driver behavior. The study included observations of a total of 1,386 pedestrian crossings and 890 pedestrian-vehicle interactions at seven different crosswalks on the UMass Amherst campus. The researchers found that nearly half of all pedestrians were distracted while crossing the street, with 22% of them talking to another person beside them, 16% using headphones, and 10% either texting or talking on their phones.

Cities have begun to take notice of distracted walkers and are looking for ways to improve intersection and crosswalk safety. In October 2017, Honolulu enacted a law allowing pedestrians who text on their phones while crossing the street to be fined $15 to $99 for doing so.  This new law is thought to be the first such law of its kind in the country. Prior to October,  Honolulu had more pedestrians being hit  by vehicles in crosswalks, than any other major US City. Local high school students were instrumental in pushing for this law. Kel Hirohata, a local high school teacher interviewed on National Public Radio recently, described how the Youth for Safety club at Waipahu High School spent more than a week watching fellow students as they left school. They noticed an alarming trend: many of their classmates staring at their phones while crossing the street. The Safety club members took note of the potential danger, and then followed up with a local councilmember who wrote a bill which then became the new law.

Legislators in other places have also proposed laws to curb texting while walking. In San Mateo County, California, County board members unanimously voted in favor of a resolution in September 2017 asking state lawmakers to pass a law banning cell phone use in crosswalks. Stamford, Connecticut is now considering an ordinance that would ban cell phone talking or texting while crossing the street and impose a $30 fine for offenders. In September 2017, New York State passed a law requiring the New York City Transportation Department to study and report on its efforts to educate drivers and walkers about the dangers of pedestrians distracted by cell phones.  In Massachusetts a bill was introduced this November to ban texting while jaywalking. No action has yet been taken on this proposed legislation.

It’s not just in the United States that officials are looking into distracted walking. Bodegraven, Amsterdam for example installed lights in the ground near crosswalks that would change colors with the traffic lights, so people looking down on their phones would be more aware of the nearby traffic and when it’s safe to cross.

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LED sidewalk lights in Amsterdam. Source: http://www.omroepwest.nl

 

Decriminalization of Marijuana and Potential Impact on CMV Drivers

by Kathryn Slater, UMTC Research Staff

Captain Darrin Grondel is the Director of the Washington Traffic Safety Commission and a Captain with the Washington State Patrol. At the 2016 Commercial Vehicle Safety Research Summit, Captain Grondel discussed drugged driving and its impact on traffic safety. The following are some highlights of Captain Grondel’s presentation.

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As marijuana becomes legal for recreational use across the country, transportation safety stakeholders grapple with the realities and challenges inherent in the new legislation. Currently, the possession and use laws in the U.S. are described as a patchwork, as their look and structure remain very different, depending on the state.

What’s more, the strength of marijuana has changed dramatically over the last several decades. While most governmental studies involving marijuana involve THC levels of 3-6%, the substances now showing up in a variety of forms (oils, edibles, vaping) have THC levels closer to 30-40%.  While many issues around legalization of marijuana remain unclear, what we do know is that incidences of drugged driving are going up, and must be mitigated.

The overarching issue around legalization of marijuana remains the existing knowledge gap around the effects of cannabis (and other drugs) on driving. One reason for this gap is a complete lack of data around drugged driving; including crash and inspection data, and information about the types of drugs being used, and in which combinations.

Another major issue is public indifference. Drivers tend to see drunk driving as clearly dangerous and socially unacceptable, but don’t feel strongly one way or the other about drugged driving. Many people don’t know the level at which drugs impair them, and haven’t been educated about the dangers of driving while taking something as benign-seeming as cough medicine. The Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation conducted the PIRE Roadside Survey in 2014 and 2015, where they surveyed 926 drivers in 5 counties. Of drivers who said they’d used marijuana within two hours of driving, 67% said that it made no difference in their driving. Knowing what we do about the effects of THC on the brain, it seems unlikely that drivers would be unaffected.

What remains clear is that drugged driving is much more complicated than drunk driving, and that these types of crashes are on an upward trend. Less clear, are the details around how drivers are affected, how long those effects last and how police will know a drugged driver when they see one.