Large Truck Crash Fatalities

by Tracy Zafian, Research Fellow

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An 18-wheeler maneuvers through Worcester traffic (from Worcester Magazine, file photo, Steven King)

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) has updated its summary on large truck crashes and fatalities to include 2016 data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) maintained by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA). The FARS data show though the number of deaths from large truck crashes has decreased nationally over the last 30 years, the last few years have seen an increase.

In 2016, a total of 3,986 people died in large truck crashes. Two-thirds of these deaths were occupants of cars and other passenger vehicles, 17 percent were truck occupants, and 16 percent were pedestrians, bicyclists, or motorcyclists.

According to IIHS’s analysis of the 2016 FARS data:

  • The number of people who died in large truck crashes was 27% higher in 2016 than in 2009, when it was the lowest it had been since the collection of fatal crash data began in 1975.
  • The number of truck occupant deaths was 47% higher than in 2009.
  • 73% of deaths in large truck crashes involved tractor trailers.
  • 62% of large truck occupant deaths occurred in single-vehicle crashes.
  • 67% of large truck occupants that were killed in multiple-vehicle crashes were in a collision involving another large truck.
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Data from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Dec 2017. http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/t/large-trucks/fatalityfacts/large-trucks

In its summary, the IIHS writes that “truck-braking capability can be a factor in truck crashes.  Loaded tractor-trailers take 20-40% farther than cars to stop and the discrepancy is greater on wet roads or with poorly maintained brakes.  Truck driver fatigue also is a known crash risk.”

A study conducted by NHTSA and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) on large truck crashes over a 3-year period found that truck driver inattention due to fatigue, distraction, and related factors can contribute up to 35% of truck crashes involved an injury or death. As discussed in a recent Innovative Outlook article, one issue which may contribute to truck driver fatigue is the lack of sufficient rest areas for large trucks.

The recent FARS data for Massachusetts shows that the number of fatal crashes in-state involving large trucks declined from 31 crashes in 2013 to 25 crashes in 2016. Over the same period, the number of truck occupant deaths from these crashes decreased from 4 to 2. This indicates that many of the people killed in the crashes involving large trucks were outside of the trucks, as occupants in other vehicles or as motorcyclists, bicyclists, or pedestrians.

Accommodating Truckers Saves Lives and Money

by: Tracy Zafian, Research Fellow

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Statistics have shown that truck driver fatigue is often a leading factor in truck crashes. A truck driver was killed in a multi-vehicle collision on Interstate 91 on January 20, 2018. Though the cause of this crash, which included two tractor-trailers and 4 cars, is still under-investigation, driver fatigue is being considered as one of the causes.

Attention to the need for safe parking and rest areas for commercial truck drivers has grown since the 2012 passage of Jason’s Law, federal legislation in honor of Jason Rivenburg, a truck driver who was killed while pulled over to rest at an abandoned gas station. As discussed in a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) report, after Jason’s death, his spouse Hope Rivenburg sponsored a study on truck driver’s parking needs.  Among the study’s key findings:

  • 39% percent of the drivers responding take 1 hour or longer to find parking.
  • 53% of drivers regularly use a commercial truck stop for rest and 20% regularly use a rest area. Other options used regularly include shipper/receiver location (20%), on/off ramp (8%), abandoned lot/isolated area (10%), and behind a shopping center (11%).
  • 88% of drivers reported feeling unsafe while parked during mandatory rest or waiting for pickup or delivery of a load over the previous 12 months.

FHWA is working to address this issue. After its passage, Jason’s Law was incorporated into the MAP-21 (Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century) transportation funding bill, and a thorough analysis of truck parking needs was conducted.

Safety and economic impacts of inadequate parking for Commercial Motor Vehicles (CMVs) were evaluated in a recent study conducted at Oregon State University (OSU). The study looked at crashes on U.S. Highway 97, which runs north-south across the state, over a 7-year period. The main finding was that at-fault truck crashes resulted in approximately $75 million of “crash harm.” The researchers estimated that at-fault truck crashes resulted from factors such as driver fatigue which can result from inadequate truck parking options. Researchers found a high need for more safe truck parking, both in Oregon, on Highway 97, and elsewhere.  Federal law restricts drivers from being behind the wheel for more than 11 hours at a time and requires them to park and rest for at least 10 hours before driving again.

Information on the OSU study was based on this Science Daily news report.

 

Decriminalization of Marijuana and Potential Impact on CMV Drivers

by Kathryn Slater, UMTC Research Staff

Captain Darrin Grondel is the Director of the Washington Traffic Safety Commission and a Captain with the Washington State Patrol. At the 2016 Commercial Vehicle Safety Research Summit, Captain Grondel discussed drugged driving and its impact on traffic safety. The following are some highlights of Captain Grondel’s presentation.

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As marijuana becomes legal for recreational use across the country, transportation safety stakeholders grapple with the realities and challenges inherent in the new legislation. Currently, the possession and use laws in the U.S. are described as a patchwork, as their look and structure remain very different, depending on the state.

What’s more, the strength of marijuana has changed dramatically over the last several decades. While most governmental studies involving marijuana involve THC levels of 3-6%, the substances now showing up in a variety of forms (oils, edibles, vaping) have THC levels closer to 30-40%.  While many issues around legalization of marijuana remain unclear, what we do know is that incidences of drugged driving are going up, and must be mitigated.

The overarching issue around legalization of marijuana remains the existing knowledge gap around the effects of cannabis (and other drugs) on driving. One reason for this gap is a complete lack of data around drugged driving; including crash and inspection data, and information about the types of drugs being used, and in which combinations.

Another major issue is public indifference. Drivers tend to see drunk driving as clearly dangerous and socially unacceptable, but don’t feel strongly one way or the other about drugged driving. Many people don’t know the level at which drugs impair them, and haven’t been educated about the dangers of driving while taking something as benign-seeming as cough medicine. The Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation conducted the PIRE Roadside Survey in 2014 and 2015, where they surveyed 926 drivers in 5 counties. Of drivers who said they’d used marijuana within two hours of driving, 67% said that it made no difference in their driving. Knowing what we do about the effects of THC on the brain, it seems unlikely that drivers would be unaffected.

What remains clear is that drugged driving is much more complicated than drunk driving, and that these types of crashes are on an upward trend. Less clear, are the details around how drivers are affected, how long those effects last and how police will know a drugged driver when they see one.

2016 Commercial Vehicle Safety Research Summit

The University of Massachusetts Traffic Safety Research Program (UMassSafe) held a Commercial Vehicle Safety Research Summit in November of 2016 to promote best practices for advancing safety through partnerships among law enforcement and state driver’s license agencies with universities.  With more than 100 attendees from across the Northeast, the 2-day Summit, funded by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), addressed key issues related to crash prevention including driver distraction and autonomous vehicles, as well as homeland security, drugged driving, social media and workforce development.

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“Innovation is rapidly changing the transportation sector.  The Federal and state governments must keep up while never losing sight of protecting the traveling public,” said FMCSA Deputy Administrator Daphne Jefferson, one of the keynote speakers. “This summit enables us to learn from each other and build partnerships with universities to realize the safety benefits of innovation and automation.”

The goals of the summit were based upon the premise that an integrated approach and effective partnerships can reduce the number of truck and bus crashes and fatalities.  Massachusetts has enjoyed positive safety results because of the successful partnership that now exists between UMassSafe, the Massachusetts State Police Commercial Vehicle Enforcement Section and MassDOT’s Registry of Motor Vehicles Division. Using this experience as an example, summit organizers encouraged other state participants to develop or expand the connection between universities and state agencies involved in crash prevention efforts.

The FMCSA funded project continues with the implementation of a UMassSafe Technical Assistance Center (TAC) in order to provide assistance for law enforcement and licensing agencies as well as universities, acting as a resource and information center building on the momentum of the Summit.  Additional information can be accessed at www.umasstransportationcenter.org/cvsummit.

By: Robin Riessman, UMassSafe

T-Force Toolkit : Increasing Truck and Bus Traffic Enforcement

For a variety of reasons, routine traffic stops with large trucks and buses occur significantly less than traffic stops with passenger vehicles. Considering the detrimental effects of these crashes, it is critical that we incorporate truck/bus traffic enforcement into existing highway safety activities.

With this growing issue in mind, the University of Massachusetts Traffic Safety Research Program (UMassSafe) developed T-Force, Truck and Bus Traffic Enforcement Toolkit, providing a free one stop shopping tool for resources geared toward traffic patrol officers. T-Force is a three-part program with a goal of increasing the enforcement of moving violations such as speeding and lane violations. Different than programs aiming to inform specialized Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP) officers, this information is intended for a wider audience, particularly officers conducting regular traffic enforcement.

The T-Force Toolkit is comprised of three main sections; including Fast Facts, Instructors Portal and Web Resources.

  • Fast Facts: This section of the Toolkit offers detailed information regarding the importance of traffic stops with trucks/buses, strategies for maintaining officer safety, how truck/bus traffic stops are different than those with passenger cars, the process of conducting an effective traffic stop and the details involved in CDL. Users can move quickly through this interactive tool, accessing only the information they need.
  • Instructors Portal: This section provides access to all of the materials needed to conduct the Safe and Effective Traffic Stops: Truck and Bus Traffic Enforcement training. This training, developed by UMassSafe, is currently being taught in several states across the country for local and state traffic patrol officers. Instructors can access all course materials on the website, including a guide for both instructors and participants as well as the PowerPoint presentation.
  • Web Resources: The web resources section provides access to an online library of videos, a discussion board to ask and answer questions, and links to other trainings and online resources.

For additional information  www.tforcetoolkit.com.

UMassSafe is a multidisciplinary traffic safety research group housed in the UMass Transportation Center at the University of Massachusetts. With the unique ability to examine highway safety from a variety of perspectives, UMassSafe provide tools and information in a format that is practical for a wide range of users from law enforcement personnel to statisticians at federal agencies. Working on issues related to commercial motor vehicle safety for over 15 years, UMassSafe has developed data query tools, crash corridor maps, and police training as well as conducted extensive crash data analysis and data quality improvement projects.

Written by Robin Riessman and Jennifer Gazzillo, UMassSafe